Presented August, 1, 2018 to the Bible Faculty Summit, Bob Jones University, Greenville, South Carolina


Paul affirmed to Timothy the authority, capacity, and sufficiency of the Scriptures for the adequacy of the believer.[1] In similar fashion Jesus applied the sufficiency of Scripture in responding to His testing by Satan. Yet in close proximity to both instances we observe the employment of extra-Biblical resources in complementing the situation. In Paul’s case, even as he exhorts Timothy to faithfulness in the word, he acknowledges value in Timothy’s attentiveness to not only what Paul taught and wrote, but to his experiences as well.[2] In Jesus’ case, He acknowledges there is a place for bread, though it ought not be viewed as the sole source of life.[3] Likewise, after His testing He was the beneficiary of angelic ministry.[4]

In both instances, the word of God is affirmed as authoritative and sufficient, and in both situations, other resources help to set or complete the context. Considering these and other Biblical scenarios, this paper evaluates the nature of Biblical authority and sufficiency and the role of extra-Biblical resources in transformative teaching and learning. To underscore the practical value of the authority and sufficiency issues, this study also compares principles observed in the Biblical narratives with principles employed in psychology and counseling, providing a case study for the application of extra-Biblical resources in transformative teaching and learning contexts.

[1] 2 Timothy 3:16-17.

[2] 2 Timothy 3:10-11.

[3] Matthew 4:4, from Deuteronomy 8:3.

[4] Matthew 4:11.

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